Surprising discovery identifies new approach to suppress spread of cancer
In a landmark study published December 20, 2012 in the leading journal Cell, Valbona Luga and Dr. Liang Zhang, who work in Dr. Jeff Wrana’s lab, identify that proteins produced in normal cells near the environment of a cancer tumour influences the cancer’s ability to spread to other tissues of the body, a process called metastasis. In this short video from the research team, breast cancer cells are being stimulated by exosomes, which are produced by 'normal' cells. The breast cancer cells display an incredible rate of motility, one of the attributes for metastatic spread.
One of the impacts of the study is the ability to target one of the proteins, called Cd81, to halt the spread of breast cancer and other cancers. The newly identified protein is part of tiny fragments of cells called exosomes. In a cancer state, the tumour cell releases exosomes to influence neighbouring cells. The researchers discovered that normal cells surrounding the tumour also secrete exosomes which help the tumour cells to spread.
“We wanted to find out how these different cells are communicating – from tumour cells to normal cells, and vice versa,” says Dr. Jeff Wrana. “Classically, scientists have believed that communication between cells occurs in a simple fashion, that is, one signal (one word) back and forth. We found, to our disbelief, that these cells are exchanging whole paragraphs of information.”
“Instead of only targeting the primary tumour, we can now pinpoint the cells in the tumour’s environment that are responding to the tumour and target those too,” says Valbona Luga. “We hope to use our new knowledge of the tumour’s immediate surroundings to intercept its signals to cancer cells, and by doing so, drastically impede tumour spreading.”
When exosomes were initially discovered in the 1980s, they were classified as little more than cell waste. In the 1990s, scientists linked their role to the healthy function of the immune system. Now, the Lunenfeld team has provided compelling evidence that exosomes are linked to cancer metastasis, and identified important proteins and molecules in normal cells and cancer cells that can be targeted to halt cancer’s spread.
Funded by the Terry Fox Research Institute and CIHR (Canadian Institutes of Health Research), for this particular study Lunenfeld scientists also collaborated with Dr. Alicia Viloria-Petit from the Department of Biomedical Sciences at the University of Guelph and Dr. Mark Basik from the Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research at Jewish General Hospital in Montreal.
About The Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute
Established in 1985, the Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital is one of the world's leading centres for biomedical research. The Institute is part of Mount Sinai Hospital, an internationally recognized academic health science centre affiliated with the University of Toronto. Research at the Lunenfeld is focused on women’s and infants’ health, cancer biology, stem cell biology, neurobiology, diabetes, arthritis, genetic disorder research and systems biology. The Lunenfeld’s internationally recognized and award winning researchers continue to make leading-edge discoveries in the prevention, detection and treatment of cancer, diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, psychiatric disorders, kidney disease, women’s and infants’ health, inflammatory bowel disease, and spinal cord injury. For more information about the Lunenfeld, please visit www.lunenfeld.ca.