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Ophthalmology Services

At Mount Sinai, the eye physicians and surgeons perform focused eye exams to diagnose eye pathology. Comprehensive ophthalmologists diagnose and treat numerous eye conditions with the most common being diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. The goal is to prevent further damage and maintain the health of the eyes. Many other medical specialties refer patients to identify possible ocular presentations of other diseases.

The most common intraocular surgery performed by our eye surgeons is cataract surgery performed in collaboration with our community partner, the Kensington Eye Institute.

Here is a comprehensive list of Eye Diseases and Topics from the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Here is more information on eye health from the Canadian Ophthalmology Society.

The specialty of oculoplastics deals with diseases around the eye, specifically those involving the eyelids, lacrimal apparatus (tear ducts), and orbits (sockets), with a major focus on oncological diseases of these structures.

The oculoplastics program works closely with our other services such as otolaryngology, anesthesia and respiratory therapy, pathology and lab medicine, medical imaging and maxillofacial surgery. As well, the oculoplastics program interacts with services at other peer hospitals across the region.

  • Paediatrics at The Hospital for Sick Children
  • Ocular oncology and radiotherapy at Princess Margaret Hospital
  • Neurosurgery at Unity Health Network
  • Craniofacial plastic surgery at Sunnybrook Hospital

Our Oculoplastics specialists also provide outreach services in Don Mills, Mississauga, and Oshawa.


Information on procedures and treatments for the eyes from the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Survey.

Glaucoma is the gradual loss of peripheral vision and may lead to loss of vision and blindness. Damage to the optic nerve is usually related to the eye pressure, or intraocular pressure. Apart from medications, glaucoma laser or surgical intervention may be used to slow down further damage and progression of a visual field defect.

To monitor the progression of glaucoma, patients usually undergo testing such as a visual field and an optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the optic nerve.


See the Possibilities - Glaucoma

Glaucoma Research Society of Canada - FAQs About Glaucoma

Strabismus is the misalignment of the eyes, with the most common misalignments being esotropia (eyes turning inward) or exotropia (eyes turning outward). Sometimes strabismus can be treated with prism glasses, or surgery.

Strabismus surgery is the tightening or loosening of extra ocular muscles of the eye. Realigning the intraocular muscles resulting in repositioning of the eye. This is done by creating a new alignment relative to both eyes.

Orthoptics are specialized examinations done by an orthoptist to diagnose any dysfunctions in eye movements, vision, eye alignment and binocularity. Orthoptics is especially helpful in treatment of amblyopia and strabismus. This is a non-surgical intervention.


More information on adult strabismus from the American Academy of Ophthalmology.


Retinal diseases interfere in relaying messages to the brain via the posterior layer of the eye called the retina. Medication, laser treatments and intraocular injections are some of the interventions used to preserve the health of the retina and macula in common diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Surgical interventions may be required in other cases such as retinal detachment.


An overview of the top five most common serious eye conditions, including diabetic retinopathy and age-related-macular degeneration

More information from the American Academy of Ophthalmology on detached retinas

Dry or burning, itchy eyes are linked to other health conditions within the body. Lack of tear production or quick evaporation of tears may also result in dry eyes. With consistent monitoring and treatment with medication, symptoms can be reduced immensely. A step-wise approach is usually involved when patients are diagnosed with dry eyes.


More information on dry eyes and its causes from the American Academy of Ophthalmology

A key component of establishing treatment for eye disease involves diagnostic testing.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT):

OCTs use waves of light to take cross-sectional imaging of your central retina (called the macula) and optic nerve. This is a non-invasive test that provides information on a microscopic level.

Visual field test:

To determine your peripheral, and sometimes central field of vision, visual field tests are performed such as an automated static perimetry test. This is a subjective, non-invasive test where the patient focuses on a target, and actively clicks a button in the presence of light stimuli, which maps out how much of the peripheral area can be seen.

More information on visual field testing from the American Academy of Opthalmology

UBM Testing:

Ultrasound Biomicroscopy (UBM) is a specialized ultrasound done to view the anterior internal components of the eye, from the cornea to the lens. This technology was invented by an ophthalmologist at Mount Sinai Hospital and Princess Margaret Hospital, Dr. Charles Pavlin, as well as his colleague at the Engineering Department at the University of Toronto, Dr. Stuart Foster. We are proud to be one of the few places in the City of Toronto to offer this service full-time, with referrals from many places outside the city. This invasive test involves placing a small eyecup on the eye after instilling an anesthetic drop, and performing the ultrasound through sterile water that fills the eyecup.

Biometric testing:

There are a few other tests that provide information about the eye. These include A-scan, B-scan, which are ultrasound modalities of the eye, and optical biometry (the machine most commonly used is called an IOL Master).

  • A-scans are used primarily to measure the length of the eye, and can also give information of other abnormalities based on the sounds waves produced.
  • B-scans are ultrasounds that image the posterior aspect of the eye, including the vitreous, retina, and more posterior structures in the eye and orbit.
  • Optical biometry is a non-invasive test using light, instead of sound, to measure the cornea, as well as other anatomical measurements needed for cataract surgery calculations. This is the most common pre-operative test for cataract surgery.

These are pre-surgical measurements used to gather measurements for intraocular lens implants.